Vitamin D or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation are commonly used, but findings from the VITAL Rhythm trial do not support their use for the primary prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) . The results from this first-of-its-kind AF primary prevention randomised controlled trial were highly anticipated.
Marine omega-3s and vitamin D have been implicated in upstream biologic processes involved in electrical and structural remodelling of the atria. In observational studies, patients with low levels of these nutrients tend to have an elevated risk of AF. Dietary supplements have appeal in primary prevention given the relative ease of administration to broad populations. The VITAL Rhythm Study (NCT02178410) is an ancillary trial of the VITAL trial. The VITAL trial tested daily supplementation with 2000 IU of vitamin D3 and/or 840 mg of omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor 1g/d; 465 m...
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