A high-dose, trivalent influenza vaccine was not more effective than the standard-dose quadrivalent vaccine at reducing the risk of death or hospitalisation for heart-related or lung-related causes in patients with a history of recent hospitalisation for acute myocardial infarction (MI) or heart failure (HF). This was the main conclusion from the INVESTED study [1,2].
In patients with underlying cardiovascular disease, influenza is temporally associated with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, including MI, hospitalisations for HF, and death. Influenza vaccination reduces adverse clinical outcomes and is recommended annually. However, individuals with cardiovascular disease often mount a less effective vaccine-induced protective response . The same holds true for older patients (aged ≥65 years) for whom a high-dose vaccine is approved in the USA.
The INVESTED study (
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Table of Contents: AHA 2020
COVID-19 and Influenza
CVD Risk Reduction
Acute Coronary Syndrome
Coronary and Valve Disease
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