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Adjuvant immune checkpoint inhibition after complete resection

ESMO 2020
Updated results from KEYNOTE-054 and CheckMate-238 confirm previous observed benefits of adjuvant immune checkpoint inhibition with pembrolizumab and nivolumab, respectively. In KEYNOTE-054, 1,019 patients with completely resected high-risk stage III melanoma were 1:1 randomised to adjuvant therapy with pembrolizumab (200 mg) or placebo every 3 weeks for a total of 18 doses (∼1 year) or until disease recurrence or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint, recurrence-free survival (RFS), was in favour of pembrolizumab (HR 0.56 [1]. Updated results at 3.5 years of median follow-up showed that, compared with placebo, pembrolizumab significantly prolonged distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) both in the overall population (65.3% vs 49.4%; HR 0.60; P<0.001) and in the PD-L1-positive tumour population (n=853; 66.7% vs 51.6%; HR 0.61; P<0.0001). Most benefit of adjuvant pembrolizumab was observed in patients with BRAF-mutated melanoma...

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