Genome-based mechanisms and bone marrow microenvironmental factors that drive treatment resistance in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) treated with daratumumab plus carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) have been identified. These findings improve the understanding of treatment failure in this population, potentially adding to the development of improved therapies in the future .
Although treatment regimens including anti-CD38 antibodies have resulted in improved health outcomes for patients with MM, treatment resistance remains a substantial issue. The investigation of treatment failure in patients with MM can be done via single-cell microenvironmental analysis and genome-wide tumour genetics analysis.
Dr Eileen Boyle (NYU Langone Health, NY, USA) and her research team collected malignant plasma cells from bone marrow in patients with newly diagnosed MM treated with daratumumab plus KRd (n=46) or KRd alone (n=14) to perform whole-genome sequencing and single-cell RNA sequencing. MRD negativity, sustained MRD negativity, and progression of MRD negativity were the clinical endpoints.
After a median follow-up of 29 months, it was demonstrated that deletion of 13q, biallelic loss of CYLD, deletion of XBP1, deletion of 20q13.12, and 8q gains were linked to MRD positivity. Moreover, deletion of RPL5, IKFZ3 structural variants, and multiple chromothripsis events were associated with disease progression. Furthermore, trisomy 21 was related to improved disease outcomes. These findings reveal novel genomic drivers associated with daratumumab plus KRd treatment failure in patients with MM.
The authors also reported that deletions of XBP1 and 20q13.12 were associated with the loss of memory B cells, naïve B cells, and dendritic cells in the bone marrow microenvironment. In addition, low levels of plasmacytoid dendritic cells at baseline were linked to worse disease outcomes. Also, gains in 6p24 were related to a decreased number of CD8 effectors 1 and 2. These results indicate that specific genomic lesions lead to particular changes in the bone marrow microenvironment.
Finally, a significant difference between MRD-positive and MRD-negative patients was observed regarding the depletion of natural killer cells, and naïve and memory B cells throughout the therapy. Moreover, MRD-negative patients had more CD14-positive monocytes at baseline and after induction therapy. These findings indicate that inflammatory response genes, such as IL-1B, are upregulated in MRD-positive patients and that IL-2, IL-6, and IFNα responses and adipocyte differentiation are linked to (sustained) MRD negativity.
- Boyle E, et al. Genomic and Immune Signatures Predict Sustained MRD Negativity in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients Treated with Daratumumab, Carfilzomib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone (D-KRd). Abstract 325, ASH 2021 Annual Meeting, 11–14 December.
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Table of Contents: ASH 2021
Letter from the Editor
ASH 2021 Highlights Podcast
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia
New Interfant protocol includes blinatumomab for KMT2A-r ALL
Persistent disparities in ALL health outcomes
EWALL-INO: Inotuzumab ozogamicin promising as first-line therapy for BCP-ALL
UKALL 2003: Therapy de-escalation safe in low-risk MRD patients with ALL
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
AMLSG 16-10: Long-term benefits of midostaurin for FLT3-ITD-mutated AML
Comparable effectiveness of CPX-351 and venetoclax plus HMA in older AML patients
Promising frontline triplet regimen for TP53-mutated AML
Encouraging results of novel triplet combination for AML
Heavily pre-treated FLT3-mutated AML population may benefit from novel triplet regimen
Benefits of eprenetapopt plus azacytidine for TP53-mutant MDS and oligoblastic AML
Improved risk stratification in MDS via gene-based scoring system
CAPTIVATE: Ibrutinib plus venetoclax shows ongoing efficacy in CLL
SEQUOIA: Zanubrutinib meets primary endpoint for treatment-naïve CLL/SLL
Investigational therapies superior to standard-of-care in double-exposed CLL
GRIFFIN: Sustained responses of daratumumab plus RVd in MM
MajesTEC-1: Teclistamab efficacious in heavily pre-treated MM
iStopMM: Smouldering MM highly prevalent in general population
Mechanisms of D-KRd treatment failure in MM identified
TRIMM-2: Favourable results of talquetamab plus daratumumab for MM
Second-line tisa-cel similar to standard-of-care for R/R aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Axi-cel improved event-free survival in R/R DLBCL
Axi-cel more effective but tisa-cel less toxic in DLBCL
POLARIX: Novel regimen superior to R-CHOP in DLBCL
Novel non-invasive biomarker ctDNA shows value in CNS lymphoma
Mechanisms behind TP53 mutations revealed in myeloproliferative neoplasms
JAK2V617F variant allele frequency prognostic of venous events in polycythaemia vera
Promising results of tacrolimus plus dexamethasone for ITP
Sustained remission after TPO-RA discontinuation in chronic ITP
Fitusiran meets primary endpoint in ATLAS-A/B trial
ATLAS-INH: Impressive results of fitusiran for haemophilia with inhibitors
rFVIIIFc establishes rapid tolerisation in haemophilia A with inhibitors
Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease in CHIP carriers
Lifelong patterns of clonal haematopoiesis revealed
Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease in CHIP carriers