Altered fractional anisotropy (FA) was not associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large, longitudinal study. Continuous monitoring of disease symptoms may be more sensitive to FA than diagnostic categories. Moreover, the right cingulum angular bundle (rCAB) may play a role in the severity of hyperactive-impulsive (HI) symptoms .
Although ADHD has been related to differences in white matter (WM) microstructure, much remains unclear about the nature of these WM differences and the clinical aspects of ADHD they reflect. In a large longitudinal cohort, Ms Christienne Damatac (Donders Institute for Brain- Cognition and Behaviour, the Netherlands) and her colleagues assessed the association between WM microstructure and symptom severity and the development of this association was investigated over time.
Clinical and MRI data was obtained from 654 participants (322 were unaffected, 258 were affected, 74 were on the subthreshold). Follow-up data was acquired at an average of 3.73 years later in a subset of 118 people (53 unaffected, 43 affected, and 22 on the subthreshold). Automated global probabilistic tractography was applied on 18 major WM tracts and associations of clinical measures with overall brain and tract-specific FA were evaluated with linear mixed-effects regression models.
Cross-sectional results indicated a significant association between HI and inattention symptoms and FA, and temporal interaction effects with tract (both P<0.007). There were no significant associations of FA with a current or lifetime ADHD diagnosis. Lower FA in the rCAB was associated with higher HI symptom severity (PFWE=0.045). There were no significant effects for other tracts.
Longitudinal results showed that less remission of combined HI and inattention symptoms were associated with an increased FA at follow-up (P=0.048). There was no significant association of symptom remission with FA at baseline.
These findings indicate that continuous symptom measures of ADHD may be more sensitive to subtle differences in FA than diagnostic categories are. Associations of FA with ADHD are not uniformly distributed across WM tracts and the rCAB in particular may play a role in HI symptoms.
Researchers pointed out that future directions for further research may include longitudinal region-of-interest tractography analyses in clusters which are found to be significant, the use of diffusion-weighted MRI that delivers greater resolution at the neurite level, and incorporation of dMRI data in addition to the already acquired time points .
- Damatac CG, et al. White matter microstructure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms: cross-sectional and longitudinal effects. P.047. ECNP Congress 2020.
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Table of Contents: ECNP 2020
Letter from the Editor
ECNP 2020 Highlights Podcast
Psychosis and Schizophrenia
Prognostic tools in the management of clinical high risk for psychosis
Reduced auditory cortex activation during speech perception in patients with schizophrenia
Predicting MCI and dementia by assessing worrying about memory
Genomics of vascular dementia and stroke
Social media and bipolar disorder: a risky combination
How to prevent the onset and first relapse of bipolar disorders?
Seasonal pattern and bipolar disorder
OCD and Depression
rTMS is not effective in OCD
Personalised medicine in depression: a realistic way forward?
Heart rate could be a potential biomarker for depression
Listening to Mozart has a beneficial effect on epilepsy
Mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic
Microdosing psychedelics offers perspective but needs further evaluation
The PRISM project: focusing on biological parameters across neuropsychiatric disorders
Smartphone can support personalised medicine in psychiatry
Baby’s heart rate shows stress if their mother is depressed or anxious
Autism and ADHD
Movement computing promising in analysing motor impairment in children with autism spectrum disorder
Screening with ADHD Self-Report accurate in girls
No altered fractional anisotropy in ADHD
Role of the Microbiome
The gut-brain axis and obesity
Micronutrient supplementation as treatment for psychiatric symptoms
Altered gene expression of endogenous opioid system after alcohol exposure in adolescent rodents
Subgroups in alcohol use disorder based on externalising symptoms
New drugs for alcohol use disorder to focus on combination therapy